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(i)climatic factors
(ii)economic factors
(iii)physical factors
(iv)traditional factors

(i)Availability of water; the area with enough water attracts more people to settle in those areas compared to arid or dry areas.
(ii)Availability of land for agricultural activities; The areas which have fertile land attract people to settle there while infertile land make people move away from it.
(iii)Availability of social services; people prefer to live in areas which have social services such as education, water and electricity and avoid settling in areas which lack social services.
(iv)Climatic condition;areas which have adequate rainfall tend to have high growth of settlement due to high agricultural production while areas which experience low rain fall tend to have low growth of settlement due to shortage of water and poor agricultural production.
(v)Government policy; government can affect the growth of settlement by forcing people to settle in certain area or persuade people to settle in certain area by supply production services and other incentives. Also government policy affect settlement growth through town and land use planning.


(iv)Provision of medicine

{Pick any 3}
(i) South Atlantic ocean route Joins North America & south America
(ii) North pacific ocean route Joins East Asia & North america
(iii) Meditteranean sea route Joins Asia with Australia
(iv) South pacific ocean route Joins Australia with new zealand

(i) Harvesting of living resources. The most conventional use of ocean resources concerns fisheries, which account for about 15% of the world’s protein intake, with aquaculture accounting for about 20% of all the fish harvested. A growing share of the seafood is coming from aquaculture since conventional fish sources are challenged by overfishing and that the global population requires additional protein sources. With scientific advances, marine biotechnology enables a more extensive usage of marine resources for the pharmaceutical and chemical industries.
(ii) Extraction of non-living resources:- The use of the oceans to extract energy and mineral resources is relatively recent. Seabed mining is an emerging technology enabling to extract minerals from nodules are various depths. Although this activity can take place at almost any depths, the mineral rights are only available within an EEZ. Mineral rights for the high seas are managed by the International Seabed Authority, but no significant commercial ventures have so far been realized. Oil and gas is extracted from offshore platforms, mostly on the continental shelf within EEZs. The use of the oceans as a source of renewable energy is also beginning, particularly in terms of offshore wind farms and the use of tidal energy. In many areas, the scarcity of fresh water supply has incited the construction of desalination plants, which account for a growing share of the world’s freshwater production.
(iii) Maritime trade and commerce:- With globalization, international trade and maritime shipping have experienced a substantial growth. This went on part with the expansion of port facilities and their associated logistical activities. The use of the oceans for touristic purposes is expanding, particularly in tropical and subtropical ares. The ongoing development of coastal resorts is occupying a significant amount of coastal real estate that has been captured by large hotel chains. Cruise shipping is also expanding with larger ships servicing more itineraries and has created an entirely new dimension to the ocean economy. Human coastal settlements have emerged in the past to take advantage of the commercial opportunities offered by maritime shipping. Many of the world’s most important cities are port cities. The process now continues, in part driven by the economic and esthetical amenities offered by coastal areas.

{Pick any 2}
(i) Wind, War, and Weather
Determining position and maintaining direction under routine conditions depended on knowledge of winds and currents. Turbulent seas and bad weather endangered crews, threatened vessels, and spoiled the best-laid navigation plans.
(ii) Distances
Deepwater sailing called for different skills than “coasting” with landmarks in sight. On the open sea, sailors relied on dead reckoning—estimating a new position based on knowing a ship’s last position, speed, and direction. But over long distances, it was subject to ever-increasing errors.
(iii) Charts and Sailing Directions
Ignorance of vast stretches of ocean and coastline characterized navigation until well into the 19th century. Each crossing yielded information for better charts and sailing directions.
(iv) Instrument Accuracy

Finding latitude became easier with the invention of angle-finding instruments, but finding longitude remained difficult until a seaworthy clock was perfected. A heaving deck and a cloudy sky made instrument readings of Sun and stars, complicated in the best conditions, even more difficult.

(i)petrochemicals industry
(ii)pharmaceuticals industry
(iii)biological industry
(iv)shipbuilding industry
(v)textiles industry
(vi)foods industry

(i)Technological Development: Technological development plays an
important part to influence the industrial productivity. “The application of motive power and mechanical improvements to the process of production has accelerated the peace of industrialisation to an unprecedented degree.
(ii)Quality of Human Resources: Manpower plays a significant role. In raising industrial productivity in most of the industries. If the labour force is not
adequately qualified and/or is not properly motivated, all the steps taken to increase the industrial productivity will have no result the employees’ performance and attitudes have an immense effect on the productivity of any industrial unit.
(iii)Availability of Finance: The ambitious plans of an industrial unit to increase the productivity will remain mere dreams if adequate financial resources are not available to introduce technical improvements and give appropriate training to the workers.
(iv)Managerial Talent:The significance of managerial talent has increased with the advancement in technology. Professional managers are required to make better use of the new technological development.
(v)Government polixies:The industrial policies of the Government have an important impact on the industrial productivity. The Government should frame and implement such policies which create favourable conditions for saving, investment,flow of capital from one industrial sector to another and conservation of national resources.

Draw The map, locate and name the required areas

(i) Favourable climatic conditions.
(ii) The availability of space to store raw materials.
(iii) Its nearness to other industrial establishments.
(iv) Its nearness to the source of raw materials

(i) Improvement of Labour Market
(i) Development of Transport Facilities
(iii) Arrangement of Training Facilities

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