WAEC 2019- CIVIC
Wednesday 22nd May, 2019
Civic Education 2 (Essay)** – 9:30 a.m. – 11:30 a.m.
Civic Education 1 (Objective)** – 11:30 a.m. – 12:30 p.m.
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Justice is what we as a society regard as “right” based on our moral concepts of ethics, rationality, law, religion, equity and fairness, in other words, justice is the proper application of law.
(i) Scales: Lady Justice is most often depicted with a set of scales typically suspended from one hand, upon which she measures the strengths of a case’s support and opposition.
(ii) Blindfold: Lady Justice has often been depicted wearing a blindfold. The blindfold represents impartiality, the ideal that justice should be applied without regard to wealth, power, or other status.
(iii) Sword: The sword represented authority in ancient times, and conveys the idea that justice can be swift and final.
(I)Drug addicts display utopia wishes,unprecedented strength and power. They want to be president, senator governor etc at the same time
(ii)Another behaviour exhibited by drug addict is idleness. They do not feel the need to work.They loiter about and often find solace in gambling
(iii)Drug addicts exhibit criminal tendencies.They steal ,rob ,kidnap and rape.They are custodians and carriers of social vices
(iv)The drug abuser exhibit the behaviour of drug dependence. Drug dependence is a state in which continuous usage of drugs causes continued disruption or harm to one’s personal or social life
(v)Drug addict would not have value for decency or modest in dressing. he may look unkempt and buzzes in apperance
HIV which simply means human immunodeficiency virus is a virus that causes AIDS which is spread through certain body fluids that attacks the body’s immune system. Once in the body, HIV attacks the immune system cells which perform various tasks such as fighting common diseases. When one is HIV positive, it means that he or she has the AIDS causing virus in the body fluids. This does not mean a person is already suffering from aids.
AIDS which means Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome is a chronic, potentially life-threatening condition caused by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). It is the most severe phase of HIV infection. People with AIDS have such badly damaged immune systems that they get an increasing number of severe illnesses, called opportunistic infections.
(ii) Unexplained weight loss
(iv) Night sweats
(v) Muscle aches
(vi) Sore throat
(viii) Swollen lymph nodes
(ix) Mouth ulcers
(x) Chronic diarrhea
(i) Constitution is supreme
(ii) Equality of the law
(iii) Presence of fundamental human right
7b) i) Diplomatic immunity
Diplomats and Ambassadors have immunity against the rule of law in the country they are serving. They are above the legislation of that country. For example, an envoy from the United Kingdom cannot be charged or tried in Nigeria. They have to be sent back to their country.
ii) State of emergency and war
In cases of conflict or situations which require the government to declare a state of emergency, the government enforces discretionary powers. And when the government exercises these powers, it denies people of their constitutional rights. People are restricted from carrying out their normal day to day activities and forced against their wish.
Iii) Illiteracy, poverty and ignorance
The level of poverty and illiteracy in Nigeria is also a limitation to the rule of law. A lot of people live in ignorance of their constitutional rights which makes it easy for people to infringe their rights.
Iv) Delegation legislation
Top government officials, especially in the executive branch, are granted some discretionary powers. This allows them to perform their duties efficiently. However, due to the fact that human beings are selfish and love power, this opens up the opportunity for them to use this privilege against citizens. It is most time referred to as the abuse of power. A government official can make lawful sanctions that abuse the rights of an individual or society when they are administered.
Political apathy is the lack of interest in politics and political activities by the citizens of a country. When citizens are not interested in the political programmes of a country due to one reason or the other, political apathy is said to have taken place, e.g. the cold feet Nigerians often develop during elections which makes them not to go out to vote could be regarded as political apathy.
[Pick any TWO]
(i) Corruption will set in when dishonourable people fill the vacuum created by the absence of credible citizens.
(ii) There will be no accountability on the part of the
government because the people that are supposed to keep the government and the leaders in check have shown no interest in the affairs of the country.
(iii) There will be emergence of an undemocratic government
(iv) Political apathy breeds lawlessness and disorderliness in society
[Pick Any FOUR]
(i) Encouraging credible opposition in the political process in order to give the people wider choices.
(ii) Encouraging the people to become favourably disposed towards joining popular groups to enhance
(iii) Encouraging popular participation in elections.
(iv) Defending the fundamental human rights of citizens.
(v) Making leaders accountable to the people who elected them.
(vi) Ensuring good governance which inspires confidence in the citizens to participate in political activities.
9a Civil society can be understood as the “third sector” of society, distinct from government and business, and including the family and the private sphere.
CHOSE ANY SIX
- Political Instability
One big issue affecting the Civil society in Nigeria is political instability in addition to the frequent change of government. This is also accompanied by the inconsistent policies. All these affect the development and growth of the civil society.
- Lack Of Proper Awareness By Nigerian Citizens.
Most Nigerian are ignorant of the presence of these societies and some do not know the value of this organization. This has therefore hindered the national spread of this society goals and objectives, so as to receive support from every Nigeria citizen.
- Political Illiteracy Of Nigerians
The political illiteracy of Nigerians has affected the way Nigerians accepts this civil society. Nigerians, especially those in the rural setting have low or no education in the political system of Nigeria. Thus, they have been unable to use thus civil society as a proper vehicle to pressure the government.
- Lack Of Unity
There has been a long-standing problem of division among civil societies. In communicating with the government about their interests, there have always been disagreements among Nigerian Civil society practitioner. These disagreements can be either a clash of interest between two civil society or within a single society. Due to this inability to create a common ground, they thereby create a loophole for the government to play them.
- Inadequate Funding
Most civil societies suffer lack of funding, so as they can pursue their interests. Research has shown that due donor has ignored the Civil society due to the deficiency in the proper organization. Also, this has made these societies to shift their focus from pressuring the government to do what is right, to seeking of the fund from local and foreign donors. Some have even become a slave to the government and thus can no longer rise up against the government when the right things are not done.
- Lack Of Internal Democracy And Other Skills
This is a notable problem because members of this civil societies are unable to learn democratic norms and values. As a result, they are unable to teach the Nigerian citizens. They also lack important skills like advocacy and organization. These skills are required to be able to be able to have an effective conversion with the government.
- Corruption And Personal Enrichment
There have been a lot of corruption accusations in many civil societies. They range from embezzlement and conversion of funds to personal accounts, to lack of transparency by this civil societies. Thus, has caused moral weakness in this societies to allow fruitful engagement with the government.
- Involvement In Partisan Politics
Some of the members of these civil societies are involved in partisan politics. That are the same members that are checking the government and fighting the government when there is a wrong policy in place. These members are in political post in the country. Thus, it is hard to criticize the government properly and effectively when they err in their duties and responsibilities.