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Each school is to use their own end point
Many reading will be dropped

It will be better you choose to one you think or know it’s in line with your school reading because if yours is different from others rang of end point then you have failed your titration

Please take note💯


All CANDIDATES should use their school average titre value in 1a cos each school have their general titre value for their students which should differ a little with their fellow classmates due to errors encountered during titration in the lab. So when they see 12.50cm3, they should check the range they got during the titration and use it to edit our solution. Some school got 13.00cm3, 12.90cm3, 15.50cm3, etc. They should edit and recalculate the 1bii by editing our 12.50 there with their value. But if their school, got ranges like 12.30cm3-12.70cm3, they can use 12.50cm3. It’s difference is always +- 0.2.




Burette reading|ROUGH|1st |2nd |3rd
Final |13.60|15.50|14.80|12.50
Initial |1.00 |3.10 |2.40 |0.00
Vol. acid used |12.60|12.60|12.40|12.50

Volume of S2O3²- =12.60+12.40+12.50/3

Conc. in g/dm³ = molar mass * conc in mol/dm³
But molar mass of Na2S2O3
=46 + 64 + 48
Therefore 15.8g/dm³ = 158g/mol * conc of A in mol/dm³

Conc of A in mol/dm³ = 15.8/158

Using CaVa/CbVb = na/nb
0.1*12.50/Cb * 25.00 = 2/1

50Cb = 1.25
Cb = 1.25/50
Cb = 0.025mol/dm³

The conc of I2 in B = 0.025mol/dm³

Gram conc of I2 = molar mass * molar conc
= (1272)0.025

Percentage mass of I2 in sample = 6.35/9.0 *100%
= 0.7056 * 100%

There have to be a change in the colour of the mixture before it is added. The end point is known when the blue colour formed as starch is added, changes to colourless

Test: C + Water and filtered

Observation: part of C dissolves, colour less filtrate is formed

Inference: C is a mixture of a soluble salt

Test: 2cm^2 of filterate of salt C + AgNO3(aq) then dilute HNO3

Observation: white precipitate is formed

Inference: Cl^- present

Test: Solution im 2(b)(i) + excess NH3 solution

Observation: precipitate disorder in excess solution of NH3

Inference; Cl^- confirmed

Test: Resident + dilute HCl + shake

Observation; residue dissolved to form a blue solution

Inference; Cu^2+ present

Test; solution in 2(c)(i) + NH3 solution in drops and then in excess

Observation: light pale blue precipitate is formed precipitate dissolved in excess solution of NH3 to give a deep blue solution

Inference; Cu^2+ confirmed.

On adding BaCl2 solutions to a portion of saturated Na2CO3 precipitate is formed,precipitate dissolves on adding excess dilute HCl
Q is reducing agent like SO2, H2S, CO
calcium oxide(Cao)
concentrated H2SO4
NaOH pellet is delinquescent because it absorb moisture from the atmosphere to form solution

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