H2SO4(aq) + 2NaOH(aq) —-> Na2SO4(aq) + 2H2O(l)

Volume of Acid Va = 21.60cm³
Volume of Alkali Vb = 25.0cm³
Mass of NaoH
2.0g = 500cm³
Xg = 1000cm³
X = 1000×2.0/500
X = 2×2 = 4.0g/dm³

Then mass conc = molar conc × molar mass
.:. molar conc of B = mass conc/molar mass

Where the molar mass of NaOH
=23+16+1 = 40gmol^-1
.:. Conc of NaOH in moldm^-³ = 4.0g/dm³/40g/mol
= 0.100mol/dm^-³

CaVa/CbVb = na/nb
Ca×21.60/0.1×25 = 1/2
Ca = 0.1×25/2×21.6
CA = 0.058mol/dm^-³
Concentration of H2SO4 in mol/dm^-³ = 0.058mol/dm-³

Recall that mass conc of H2SO4
= Molar conc × Molar mass
Where molar mass of H2SO4
= 2 + 32 + 64
= 98g/mol
Mass conc of H2SO4 = 0.058× 98
= 5.684g/dm^-³
= 5.68g/dm^-³

(i) I would ensure the air bubble present is removed before taking the initial reading.
(ii) I would ensure I keep my eye in level with the liquid surface while taking the burrette reading.
(iii) I would ensure there is no leakage from the burette during titration.

INFERENCE: NO3- suspected, Gas is acidic.

OBSERVATION: Color changes from yellow to red

(2bi & 2bii)
INFERENCE: NO3- confirmed

OBSERVATION: White ppt, solube in excess
INFERENCE: PB2+, Al3+, Ca2+ suspected

OBSERVATION: Precipitate dissolves and reappears on cooling
INFERENCE: Pb2+ present

OBSERVATION: A white ppt of AgCl. Dissolves in NH3
INFERENCE: Cl- suspected
Cl- Present

(i) Boiling tube
(ii) Evaporating dish
(iii) Desiccator.

Fill a container with warm water and pour the mixture NaCl and activated charcoal. Stir properly to dissolve it. The activated charcoal will float instantly and it is filtered off using a filter paper, the dissolved salt(filtrate) is then heated till the H2O is evaporated leaving the NaCl as residue.

(i) It can be use for teeth whitening and health.
(ii) It can be use for skin care.

(i) NaCl is Not decomposed by heat
(ii) Na2CO3.10H2O effloresces, losing all or most of its water of crystallization

The acid used in this titration is dilute sulphuric acid. Nitric acid is not used as it is itself an oxidising agent and hydrochloric acid is usually avoided because it reacts withKMnO4 according to the equation given below to produce chlorine and chlorine which is also an oxidising agent in the aqueous solution.

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