(i) WARDA – West Africa Rice Development Association
(ii) IITA – International Institute of Tropical Agriculture
(iii) FAO – Food and Agriculture Organization
(iv) ILCA – International Livestock Center for Africa

(i) It provides food
(ii) It brings about rural development
(iii) It provides employment to rural communities
(iv) It provides shelter to rural communities
(v) It generates income for rural farmers
(vi) Agriculture can make a rural community a place for investors to invest.

(i) Calcium carbonate
(ii) Calcium hydroxide
(iii) Magnesium oxide
(iv) Calcium oxide

(i) Chalk
(ii) Breccia
(iii) Limestone

(iv) Sandstone

Black pod disease

(i) The use of synthetic fungicides
(ii) Proper sanitation
(iii) Utilization of resistant variety

(i) Mirids (Capsids)
(ii) Pod borers
(iii) bollworms

(i) Application of chemical like pesticides
(ii) Cultural method
(iii) Biological method

(i) farm size
(ii) climate
(iii) Soil type
(iv) soil water
(v) soil properties
(vi) Terrain

(i) Use the carrying case for storage and transport
(ii) Clean with soap and water
(iii) Service annually

Drainage is the natural or artificial removal of a surface’s water and sub-surface water from an area.

(i)Drainage helps in reclaiming water logged soil for crop production
(ii)It improves soil aeration for good root respiration
(iii)It helps to increase the soil temperature for the benefit of crop plants
(iv)It enhances early planting of crops

(i)Soil pH
(ii)Oxidation State and pH:
(iii)Inorganic Reaction
(iv)Organic Combinations

(i)Rice blast : Magnaporthe grisea
(ii)Groundnut Rosette: insect vectors
(iii)cassava mosaic: Begomovirus
(iv)Root knot of tomato: Meloidogyne
(v)maize rust: Puccinia sorghi
(vi)tristeza: Closterovirus


Malnutrition: results from a poor diet or a lack of food. It happens when the intake of nutrients or energy is too high, too low, or poorly balanced.

Weaning: the accustom (an infant or other young mammal) to food other than its mother’s milk”. Essentially, the babies are removed from their mothers and placed on a man-made feeding system. This process takes place within many farming operations, such as dairy, sheep, goats etc.

Heat period: it is the period that reproductive physiology and endocrinology (hormone) of the female animal is ready for reproduction. The fact is; “no heat, no pregnancy.”

Candling: egg-grading process in which the egg is inspected before a penetrating light in a darkened room for signs of fertility, defects, or freshness. First used to check embryo development in eggs being incubated

-Maintenance ration is given to farm animals just sufficient/enough to maintain/sustain the basic/basal metabolic functions of the body
-Production ration is given to farm animals to enable them produce either egg, meat, milk, offspring, hair/fur/wool/work

(i)severe weight loss (cachexia)
(ii)poor wound healing
(iii)changes in body mass

(i)Climate Change
(ii)Flooding and Drought
(iii)Loss of Biodiversity
(iv)Erosion of soil
(v)Disruption of the Water Cycle


Marketing:- The term marketing in agricultural economics involves all the activities or processes relating to the flow of goods and services from the producer(manufacturer)to the final consumer.

Retailers:-Retailers in agricultural economics is the second form of middlemen. They usually follow the wholesalers in the chain of distribution of goods. They also ensure regular supply of goods and services to the consumer and also create employment opportunity to people

Wholesalers:-wholesalers in agricultural economics are the part of the middlemen. they buy goods in large quantities. they provide warehousing services and also provide transport facilities

(i)Lack of Organised Marketing System
(ii)Lack of Financial Resources
(iii)Too Many Intermediates
(iv)Defective Weights and Scales
(v)Illiteracy and Lack of Unity among Farmers

(i) Government regulations
(ii) Transportation Costs
(iii) Labour/production Costs
(iv) Marketing Methods Used
(v) Tension of supply-demand relationship


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